In the heart of the expanding city of Waikabubak on the island of Sumba, clumps of straw can be seen peeking out of fences on the top of a hill. There, people in the village still hold steadfast to their old religion and traditions that have been taught them through the centuries by their ancestors.
The town of Waikabubak, capital city of the district of West Sumba, nestles in a valley counting a population of around 26,423 persons only. But among its more modern brick buildings there still remain many traditional villages where its communities continue to faithfully follow the old ways that were brought down through the generations. Most of these villages are built on the hills around the outskirts of town but there are also those that are right within the city of Waikabubak.
Among these, the villages of Tarung and Waitabar should be on your list to visit. Although they have different names, they are in fact connected in one compound and are located in the heart of Waikabubak. Just within minutes from the city center you will be suddenly carried back to ancient times and come face to face with the original Sumba faith from long ago.
Both villages do not only function as places of residence but are moreover social institutions that are called Marapu, which is also the name of their religion and religious practices that have changed little through the ages.
The traditional Sumba house called uma follows the old Sumba architectural style known colloquially as skyscrapers. It is square in shape built on a platform that is supported by wooden piles around 4 strong main pillars called kambaniru ludungu.
Additionally there are 36 pillars to support the portal structure (or kambaniru) that are connected by wooden pins made of mosa, delomera or masela wood.
The traditional Sumba house consists of three storeys. The first or top floor (toko uma) is cone-shaped like most towers, and is used to store the sacred heirlooms or at times also the harvest. Below this are the living quarters (bei uma) that do not touch the ground. Access for men is differentiated from the access for women. Then there is a large open area (bangga) with bamboo flooring that is used for communal meetings and family deliberations. The lowest level is the area below the house (kali kabunga). This area is used as pens for pigs, cows, goats, horses, water buffaloes and other animals.
Apart from these houses are others meant for specific purposes. There are tall structures to keep horses with the lower level used as pig sties (uma jangga). Another is used as a sacred temple for marapu rituals and to pray to the ancestors (uma ndewa) which may not be used for living quarters. While another is built specially for communal village meetings (uma bokulu).
You will also notice that the roof is made of thatch. These simple structures are made with simple tools such as machetes and hatchets as metal was only introduced by the Portuguese when they arrived here around the 16th century.
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