Borobudur Buddhist Temple
Based on Karang Tengah Inscription and Inscription of Kahuluan, Borobudur Buddhist Temple was founded by followers of Mahayana Buddhism around 824 AD during the Mataram kingdom with its King Samaratungga from Syailendra dynasty.
The purpose of the construction of Borobudur Buddhist Temple is as a place of prayer and worship. While the name suggests, there is a theory which states that the Borobudur Buddhist Temple got the name from the word “Bara” means the monastery and “beduhur” meaning high. So Borobudur means monastery on the highland.
Borobudur Buddhist Temple, measuring 123 m x 123 m and the height of Borobudur Buddhist Temple before the renovation of 42 m and 34.5 m after the renovation because the lowest level serve as the basis. Interestingly, the Borobudur Buddhist Temple was built without using cement or adhesive, but use the interlock system in which each block is composed and locked without glued.
Borobudur Buddhist Temple has a basic structure of the staircase, with a six-yard square, three circular courtyard and a main stupa as a peak. There are stupas, in any circular court of the Borobudur Buddhist Temple. Stupa is a bell-shaped. And on the square courts in the Borobudur Buddhist Temple, there are niches and reliefs that tell various stories of life (about 1460 stories).
In the first square court of Borobudur Buddhist Temple, there are 104 niches, the second court also has 104 niches, the third court there are 88 niches, the fourth courtyard there are 72 niches and the fifth court has 64 niches. While on the first circular court of Borobudur Buddhist Temple, there are 32 stupas, 24 stupas on the second yard and the third court has 16 stupas. In niches and stupas, there are statues of Buddha.
Total statues of Buddha in Borobudur Buddhist Temple that there should be 504 pieces of sculpture. However, more than 300 pieces damaged, mostly headless statues and even there were 43 statues missing.
Ten courtyard at Borobudur Buddhist Temple in accordance with the philosophy of the Mahayana sect. Borobudur Buddhist Temple describes ten levels that must be traversed to reach the perfection of the Buddha. The base of Borobudur Buddhist Temple symbolizes Kamadhatu, the world that is still dominated by low desire. The next four square-court with bas-relief wall is symbolizing Rupadhatu, the world that is already able to break free from passion, but is still bound by the appearance and shape. Fifth to the seventh circular floors without relief walls in Borobudur Buddhist Temple called Arupadhatu, which means the intangible, and represents the nature of which is free from passion but have not reached nirvana. And the highest levels of the main stupa illustrates the lack of form / perfection.
On each day of Vesak, in Borobudur Buddhist Temple, the Buddhist make a religious ceremony to commemorate the holy day. In 1991, UNESCO stated the Borobudur Buddhist Temple as a world heritage site.
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