7 Nature Wonders of Indonesia
www.indonesia.biz.id – Located in North Sumatra province, Lake Toba is the largest lake in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. It has a length of 100 kilometers and 30 kilometers wide. Lake Toba is a volcanic lake and in the middle of the lake, there is a volcanic island named the island of Samosir.
Lake Toba explosion was estimated to occur at about 73,000-75,000 years ago and it was a Supervolcano eruption of Mount Toba. The materials was spewed by this explosion estimated at 800 km ³ of rocks, and 2,000 km ³ of volcanic ash.
The eruption occurred during a week. Ejected volcanic ash as high as 10 miles and spread throughout the earth even recording its history is also available at the north pole. This incident caused mass death and the extinction of some species.
After the eruption, the caldera formed which is then filled with water and became what is now known as Lake Toba. Pressure upward by magma that has not come out cause the emergence of Samosir Island.
The evidence that shows how powerful the Toba volcanic eruption strengthens the case, that the eruption and tsunami could wipe out life on Atlantis.
Lake Kelimutu is located on top of a volcano in Flores, Indonesia, this lake is better known as the Three Colors Lake because of the lake is comprised of three lakes that have different colors, red, white and blue. However, the color of the lake always change from time to time.
The area of that three lakes are about 1,051,000 square meters with a volume of 1292 million cubic meters of water. Boundary between the lake was a narrow stone walls prone to landslides. This wall is very steep with 70-degree angle. Lake wall height ranges from 50 to 150 meters.
Local people have the belief that the lake is blue or “Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai” is a gathering place for the souls of young people who have died. Lake of the red or “Tiwu Ata Polo” is a gathering place for the souls of the dead and as long as he lived always commit a crime / magick. While the lake is white or “Tiwu Mbupu Ata” is a gathering place for the souls of parents who have died.
Mount Krakatoa is a volcanic island that is still active and located in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. This mountain had erupted on 26-27 August 1883. The eruption was so powerful. Hot clouds and the tsunami killed about 36,000 people.
Eruptive sound could be heard in Alice Springs, Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Africa which is about 4653 kilometers. The eruption estimated at 30,000 times the atomic bomb that was detonated in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.
The tsunami is the biggest in the Indian Ocean region until then happened again on December 26, 2004 because of 9.0 magnitude tectonic earthquake off the west coast of Sumatra island. Tsunami waves creeped up to the Hawaiian coast, west coast of Central America and the Arabian Peninsula that 7,000 miles away.
Krakatau eruption caused global climate change. World experienced darkness for two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere. The sun was shining dim until next year due to volcanic ash suspended in earth’s atmosphere. Volcanic dust scattering appeared in the sky of Norway to New York.
The eruption of Mount Krakatau is recorded as the world’s first major disaster in the modern human life.
Jayawijaya Mountains is a mountain range that extends lengthwise in the middle of Papua island, from West Papua and Papua in Indonesia to Papua Newguinea. Rows of the mountains which have some of the highest peak in Indonesia was formed by the removal of the sea floor thousands of years ago. So, despite being at an altitude of 4800 m above sea level, fossil of sea shells can still be seen in limestone and clastic rocks in Jayawijaya Mountains. Therefore, besides being a heaven for hikers, mountain paradise Jayawijaya also a world geological researchers.
Jayawijaya Mountains are also the only mountains and mountain, which has a peak covered with eternal snow in Indonesia, an equatorial country. Although not all of the peak of the cluster Jayawijaya Mountains that has snow. Snow is owned by several peaks even at this time is lost due to weather changes globally.
Raja Ampat Islands
Raja Ampat Islands is an archipelago located in the western part of the Bird’s Head (Vogelkoop) of Papua Island. Four islands are members named by the four largest islands, namely Waigeo Island, Misool Island, Salawati Island, and Batanta Island.
According to various sources, the waters of Raja Ampat Islands is one of the 10 best sites for diving around the world. In fact, recognized as number one for the completeness of underwater flora and fauna at this time.
A study noted in these waters there are more than 540 species of hard corals (75% of the total species in the world), more than 1,000 species of reef fish, 700 species of mollusks.
Unique species that can occur during diving is some kind of dwarf sea horses, wobbegong, and manta rays. There are also four endemic fish king, namely Eviota king, which is a kind of fish gobbie.
At Manta Point, you can dive in the company of benign Manta Ray. Or at Cape Kri or Chicken Reef, you can dive while surrounded by hordes of fish like tuna, giant trevallies and snappers. But those tense when we are surrounded by a collection of barracuda or suddenly visible shark. And if lucky you can also see the turtle which is eating sponge or swim around you. In some places like in Salawati, Batanta and Waigeo also seen dugong or sea cow.
Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), is the world’s largest lizard species that live on the island of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Gili Dasami in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Locals call it , Ora.
Komodo dragon is included in family of Varanidae lizards, and klad of Toxicofera, Komodo dragons are the largest lizards in the world, with an average length of 2-3 m. Large size is associated with symptoms of island gigantism, the tendency for giant body of certain animals because of there is no others carnivores on the island where dragons live. And because of its body size, these lizards occupy the dominating position of a top predator ecosystem where he lives.
Komodo dragons are found by western researchers in 1910. Currently, the dragons in the wild habitat has been shrinking due to human activities and therefore included as a species of dragons that are vulnerable to extinction. These large lizards are protected under Indonesian law and a national park, namely Komodo National Park, established to protect them.
Komodo is a lizard from prehistoric remains.
Lake Kakaban formed from the sea water which was trapped in Kakaban, coupled with water from the soil and rain water from 2 million years ago. Kakaban Lake is a lake that is a prehistoric era Holosin transition. The extent of approximately 5 km ², walled cliffs as high as 50 meters, which resulted in sea water is trapped no longer get out, and became a lake.
Because of the changes and evolution of a very long time by rain water and ground water, the lake water is then to be more fresh than in the surrounding sea. These changes have an impact also on the adaptation of existing marine fauna in the lake. For thousands of years the lake in the middle of the sea has finally created a very unique ecosystem of its own.
This unique lake has four types of jellyfish, one of which is the jellyfish Cassiopea species.
There is a symbiosis story in this lake. Jellyfish of Kakaban, placing algae in the leg. Because algae are concerned to get the sun as a means of doing fotosistesa, then the jellyfish eventually go upside down, with legs up and head down. And in turn, the jellyfish gets its food from the algae.
There are only 2 places in the world that have a lake like this. The other lake is in Palau Island, Micronesia Islands in the Pacific Ocean southeast region.